In January 2021, a new edition of AS1418.1 Cranes, hoists and winches Part 1: General requirements was released. The release significantly shifts how the requirements for standard compliance are organised, with the stated aim of bringing Australia into alignment with our global suppliers and markets.
Rather than the relevant information and requirements being contained within AS1418.1, there are now many discrete standards for specific aspects of crane design. AS1418.1 is primarily a document which references these other standards.
Refer to the table below for a side-by-side comparison of the old and new standards.
Please be aware that each adopted ISO standard has an ‘Appendix ZZ’ which must be read in conjunction with the standard.
As always, Advitech will make sure we are aware of the current requirements so we are in a position to provide design and certification services. Please contact Advitech offices today on (02) 4924 5400 for assistance with crane design or certification.
|Aspect||‘Old’ Standard||Section||‘New’ Standard||Section2||Summary of differences|
|Classification of cranes||AS 1418.1:2002||2||AS 5246.1:2021||Whole||More complex assessment of load cycles allowed for:|
Load spectrum factor (Q) changed to Qp. Group classification C changed to ‘A’ classification. Introduction of displacement considerations for hoist and travel motions ‘Dh, Dt & Dc’, and accelerations per movement ‘P’. ‘M’ classifications have been moved to an appendix, although they are still required for some ‘mechanisms’ calculations.
|Materials for cranes||AS 1418.1:2002||3||AS 1418.1:2021||3||No change in requirements|
|Crane Loads||AS 1418.1:2002||4||AS 5221.1:2021||Whole||Principal, additional and special’ loads replaced with ‘Regular, Occasional, Exceptional and Miscellaneous’ loads. Similar factors and load combinations used. More guidance on limit state method. Annexes for uneven rail loads, skewing, hoisting dynamics.|
|Wind forces||AS 1418.1:2002|
|Wind load used to be according to AS 1170.2, which is a comprehensive treatment of wind loads on buildings. AS 5222 presents a simplified method for determining wind forces, specific to cranes.|
|Design of crane structure||AS 1418.1:2002||5||AS 5224:2021||Whole||Changed from 4 pages of generic guidance, with specific sections for fatigue and limits of deflection to a 100 page standard specifically covering bolts, welds, clevises, detailed fatigue, linear compressive buckling and shear buckling.|
It takes a pretty convoluted argument to suggest that use of AS 3990 is even allowed for assessment of a crane structure, since it is mentioned once in the scope and then not again.
|Stability||AS 1418.1:2002||6||AS 5225:2021|
|A little more specificity regarding factors for overturning loads.|
Load cases anchoring devices must handle are a little better spelled out.
|General, brakes, sheaves, drum, counterweights.||AS 1418.1:2002||7.1-7.3,|
|AS 5227.1:2021||Whole||The same mechanisms are covered. Some of the calculations listed are different but appear to return similar results.|
Notably, the requirement for two brakes for practically any crane, one of which is one applied directly to the drum, has been removed. Two brakes may still be required based on likelihood and consequence of failure, but it is much less explicitly called for, and a gearbox is specifically named as a ‘positive mechanical means’ of transmission.
|Loads, wheels and rails||AS 1418.1:2002||7.4-7.9, 7.20||AS 5228.1:2021||Whole||The same mechanisms are covered. Some of the calculations listed are different but appear to return similar results. Contains a few mentions of ‘M’ classification, although AS 5246.1:2021 does not state how to determine the ‘M’ classification.|
|Motion limits||AS 1418.1:2002||7.13||AS 5236.1:2021||Whole||Covers similar devices, but in more depth and detail. More explicit about what should be checked and how warnings should be communicated.|
|Ropes, guys and reeved systems||AS 1418.1:2002||7.14-7.16||ISO 16625||ISO 16625 was not reviewed.|
|Electrical equipment and controls||AS 1418.1:2002||8||AS 5230:2021||Whole||The new standard is specific to electrical and control equipment for hoists but is more extensive in its coverage and references more modern standards.|
|Hydraulic equipment and controls||AS 1418.1:2002||9||AS 2671:2021|
|Instead of providing a limited set of clauses specific to cranes, the new standard is for general hydraulic system design. The requirements are more specific and extensive. Some specific requirements are specified in AS 5227.1.|
|Pneumatic equipment and controls||AS 1418.1:2002||10||AS 2788:2021|
|Instead of providing a limited set of clauses specific to cranes, the new standard is for general pneumatic system design. The requirements are more specific and extensive. Some specific requirements are specified in AS 5227.1.|
|Operational Design||AS 1418.1:2002||11||AS 5234.1:2021|
|A little more specific about distances between buttons. Forces to actuate controls appear to have been reduced. Cabin requirements also more fully specified.|
|Manufacture and construction||AS 1418.1:2002||12||AS 1418.1:2021||12||Unchanged|
|Access and clearances||AS 1418.1:2002||12.7||AS 5240.1:2021||Whole||Much more specific about stairs and ladder forces and distances (does not conform to AS1657).|
|Inspection and Testing||AS 1418.1:2002||13||AS 1418.1:2021||13||Rewording.|
|Marking||AS 1418.1:2002||14||AS 5235.1:2021|
|Similar marking requirements on overall crane. Specific symbols to be used for marking controls.|
|Operating Environment||AS 1418.1:2002||15||AS 1418.1:2021||15||Unchanged|
|Manuals||AS 1418.1:2002||16||AS 1418.1:2021||16||Unchanged|
|Appendixes||Many appendices related to specific crane components. These are no longer in AS1418.1 but appear in other standards which are referenced.|